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Pacific ENSO Update

4th Quarter, 2012 Vol. 18 No. 4


The 3-month average of the Southern Oscillation Index for the 3rd Quarter of 2011 was 0.0, with monthly values of -0.1, -0.3 and +0.4 for the months of July, August, and September 2012, respectively. The atmosphere was still largely ENSO-neutral, as reflected by the Southern Oscillation index and near-average upper-level and lower-level winds across much of the Pacific.

Normally, positive SOI values in excess of +1.0 are associated with La Niña conditions, and negative SOI values below -1.0 are associated with El Niño conditions. Low SOI values suggest a weak coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere. The SOI is an index representing the normalized sea-level pressure difference between Darwin, Australia, and Tahiti. The historical record of the SOI from 1866 to present was calculated based on the method given by Ropelewski and Jones (1987). The complete table can be found at:

Standardized Southern Oscillation Index

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Page Last Modified: January 15 2013 03:50:03 GMT


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