SOUTHERN OSCILLATION INDEX (SOI)
The 3-month average of the Southern Oscillation Index for the 1st Quarter of 2012 was 0.8, with monthly values of 1.1, 0.5 and 0.7 for the months of January, February, and March 2012 respectively. The larger scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and the Southern Oscillation Index retain their La Niña characteristics. Accordingly, convection remains suppressed in the western and central Pacific, and enhanced over Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines.
*Note: Normally, positive SOI values in excess of +1.0 are associated with La Niña conditions, and negative SOI values below -1.0 are associated with El Niño conditions. Low SOI values suggest a weak coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere. The SOI is an index representing the normalized sea-level pressure difference between Darwin, Australia and Tahiti, respectively. The historical record of the SOI from 1866 to present was calculated based on the method given by Ropelewski and Jones (1987). The complete table can be found at: