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The 1982 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season
Tropical Storm EMILIA began as TD9E near 10.0N 136.5W on July 12, 1982. The EPHC issued its first advisory on TD9E at 121500Z. The depression continued to intensify and was upgraded to tropical storm status on the ensuing bulletin as winds reached 35 knots. EMILIA moved west between 10 and 12 knots and crossed 140W near 10N at 130300Z. The CPHC assumed forecast responsibility at this time.
During the next 24 hours EMILIA moved on a west northwest course and intensified to its maximum strength of about 55 knots. On approaching 150W, EMILIA began to feel the effects of the upper level trough that was over the Hawaiian Islands to the northwest of the storm's center.
EMILIA began to weaken rapidly due to shearing of the upper level circulation by the southwesterlies aloft and was downgraded to a tropical depression at 151200Z. The dissipation was rapid and the CPHC issued its last advisory on EMILIA at 152100Z.
DANIEL began as TD8E on July 7, 1982. Moving toward the west northwest, DANIEL intensified slowly and became a tropical storm at 081800Z and a hurricane at 100000Z. Peak intensity of 100 knot winds was reached at 111200Z near 14.5N 115.0W and this intensity was maintained for about 12 hours. As DANIEL continued west, it slowly weakened and was downgraded to a tropical storm at 150600Z. DANIEL crossed 140W near 18N as a minimal tropical storm at 161200Z with maximum winds at 35 knots, moving slightly south of west on a bearing of about 260 degrees.
DANIEL stayed on this course at a nearly steady state intensity for the next 72 hours and was finally downgraded to a tropical depression about 280 miles south southwest of South Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. By this time DANIEL came under the influence of the same trough that caused EMILIA's dissipation a few days earlier. DANIEL's movement slowed to a standstill for approximately 18 hours before it began to slowly drift north toward the Big Island of Hawaii. Early on the morning of July 22, DANIEL skirted the west coast of Hawaii and dissipated in the Alenuihaha Channel between the islands of Maui and the Big Island of Hawaii.
GILMA began as TD13E near 9.5N 117.5W. Moving on a slightly north of west course, TD13E intensified into a tropical storm at 261800Z and was named GILMA. It continued to intensify as it moved toward the west northwest and was upgraded to a hurricane at 280600Z. Peak intensity was reached 36 hours later at 291800Z near 15.6N 135.9W when maximum sustained winds were estimated at 110 kt. From this point, GILMA increased its forward motion speed to 15 to 20 knots and began to slowly weaken.
GILMA crossed 140W at 300900Z near 17N with winds ranging between 75 and 80 knots. It was now weakening rapidly and was downgraded to a tropical storm at 301800Z. During its trek through the CPHC area, GILMA had an average movement of 17.5 knots. This is nearly double the average climatological speed for this area. The upper level westerlies and their associated vertical wind shear, so prevalent over the Hawaiian Islands, resulted in the dissipation of GILMA. it was downgraded to tropical depression at 011200Z as the circulation passed about 50 miles south of South Point. The final advisory was issued at 020300Z as remnants of GILMA passed 200 miles south of Kauai.
As with many of the tropical cyclones that passed from the eastern into the Central Pacific in 1982, JOHN formed in an unusually active area of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) between 120W and 140W. JOHN began as TD16E on August 3, 1982 near 11.4N 126.5W. The EPHC issued its first advisory on TD16E at 040300Z. The depression moved west and intensified into a tropical storm and was named JOHN at 041800Z. Within 24 hours, JOHN became a hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 70 knots.
JOHN continued to intensify and crossed 140W near 12N moving into the CPHC's area of responsibility with maximum sustained winds of 100 knots. The CPHC issued the first advisory at 062100Z. JOHN remained a steady state hurricane for another 30 hours before it began to weaken. It was downgraded to tropical storm on the 090300Z advisory based on Air Force reconnaissance into its center at 090029Z. During its entire life span, JOHN moved on a slightly north of west course and as a tropical depression passed 180 miles south of the Island of Hawaii.
JOHN dissipated, as did its three predecessors, under the influence of the Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUTT) that was nearly stationary in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands during the entire life of the tropical cyclone. The upper level cloudiness and convection was sheared off by the southwesterlies aloft and the remnant low level circulation carried westward by the easterlies. The CPHC issued its last advisory on Tropical Depression JOHN at 110300Z.
KRISTY came to life as TD17E on August 8, 1982. It formed in the ITCZ approximately 220 miles southeast of the area where JOHN was spawned near 9.5N 122.7W. The EPHC issued its first advisory on TD17E at 081800Z. The tropical depression moved west, intensified, and became Tropical storm KRISTY at 090600Z. KRISTY continued to move on a slightly north of west course while slowly intensifying and reached hurricane strength at 100600Z. As it approached 140W, it began to show signs of weakening and was downgraded to a tropical storm at 110000Z.
KRISTY crossed into the Central Pacific as a tropical storm with maximum winds at 55 kt. The CPHC issued its first advisory at 111500Z. For reasons unknown, KRISTY accelerated and tumbled across 10 degrees of longitude in the next 24 hours, an average speed of 25 knots, and still maintained tropical storm strength. When it finally slowed down, KRISTY began to move on a northwesterly track.
Air Force reconnaissance aircraft that flew into JOHN was held in readiness at Hickam Air Force Base (AFB), Hawaii to reconnoiter KRISTY. Reconnaissance missions were flown into KRISTY's center and around its perimeter from the 12th through the 16th.
Satellite imagery showed that Kristy began to show signs of reintensifying early on the 13th. Air Force reconnaissance confirmed this observation and KRISTY was upgraded to a hurricane again at 140000Z. Turning to a more northerly direction, KRISTY continued to intensify and reached a peak intensity of 80 kt at 141800Z when it was about 250 miles south of South Point, Hawaii. The upper level westerlies began to make their presence felt at about this time and KRISTY's movement slowed to a crawl for the next 18 hours.
Early in the morning on the 15th, KRISTY began to pick up speed again and move toward the northwest. The top had been sheared off during the night and reconnaissance confirmed what the CPHC forecasters had seen happening during the night. Based on their estimates of maximum sustained winds, KRISTY was downgraded to a tropical storm at 151800Z. KRISTY continued to weaken as it moved toward the west and was downgraded to tropical depression at 161800Z. The last advisory by the CPHC was issued at 170300Z.
The monsoonal trough that extends east from Asia across the tropical western Pacific was very persistent during the summer of 1982. In late August, the trough worked its way east of the International Dateline. It was during this period that TD1C formed near 11N 169W. The CPHC issued its first advisory on TD1C at 300900Z. Moving slowly westward, TD1C intensified rapidly and was named Tropical Storm AKONI at 301800Z. AKONI moved slowly west and had maximum sustained winds of 45 knots, based on the Dvorak satellite intensity estimates.
At 010000Z, the ocean going tug NANA HOLO reported its position as 14 degrees 08 minutes North and 174 degrees 44 minutes West. It was experiencing heavy rain showers with east northeast winds between 10 and 15 knots and swells between 8 and 10 feet. The barometer read 1004.1 millibars. The tug was very near the center of AKONI, whose position as determined from satellite imagery to be near 14.0N 174.0W.
Maximum sustained winds estimated from satellite imagery corresponded very well with the derived winds by using the tug's pressure to approximate the central pressure of the storm. This was confirmed at 010515Z when the NANA HOLO reported east northeast winds of 50 knots with gusts as high as 60 knots and swell of 20 feet several miles east of its last reported position. During the next 12 hours, AKONI became nearly stationary and began to feel the effects of the upper level trough northwest of the center. AKONI was downgraded to a tropical depression at 020000Z as the remnant low level circulation continued westward in the easterlies. The final CPHC advisory on T.D. AKONI was issued at 021500Z as the remnant circulation crossed 180W near 13N.
MIRIAM began as TD19E on August 29, 1982 near 12.5N 108.5W. The EPHC issued the first bulletin on TD19E at 300300Z. The depression moved toward the west northwest, intensified to a tropical storm, and was named MIRIAM at 301800Z. Continuing on a west northwest course, it intensified rapidly and was upgraded to a hurricane at 311800Z. MIRIAM reached an estimated peak intensity of 75 knots at 011200Z and remained in a steady state until 040000Z when it started to weaken. MIRIAM approached 140W near 18N under the cover of darkness. Satellite fixes, focusing on an area of convection to the south of the actual center, had the storm moving slightly south of a west course. She was passed to the CPHC at 041500Z.
The CPHC issued its first bulletin on MIRIAM at 042100Z. Using visual satellite pictures, the forecasters had to relocate the storm farther north from its last estimated position. In actuality, MIRIAM had continued to move on a west northwest course instead of a course to the west. The low level circulation had been separated from the convection on the south side of the center. MIRIAM was reacting to a mid latitude upper level trough that was digging southward and an associated low pressure system that was developing to the north of MIRIAM's center.
MIRIAM's course changed to one toward the northwest and weakened considerably to a tropical depression at 051200Z over the waters far to the east of the Hawaiian Islands near 22N 147W. From that time, the dissipating depression drifted north and was considered extratropical. The CPHC issued its final advisory at 062100Z for a position near 30N 149W.
EMA began in an area of convection near 15N 140W. The forecasters at the CPHC watched the area for several days until satellite imagery on September 15 confirmed that a tropical depression had formed. The CPHC issued its first advisory on TD2C at 152100Z and centered the system near 15.5N 142.5W. Intensifying as it moved slowly north northeast, the tropical depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm EMA at 160000Z. Between 161200Z and 171200Z, EMA became nearly stationary and drifted around in a small area near 16.8N 142.0W, probably completing several small trochoidal loops before it decided to resume its trek toward the north northeast. EMA remained a tropical storm for another 24 hours and was downgraded to a tropical depression at 181800Z.
EMA's movement toward the north northeast was influenced by the surface trough that developed west of the Oregon and California coasts under a 500 millibar low that dug southwest from a position over the Pacific Northwest. During its entire life span, position and intensity estimates were made from satellite data. Maximum sustained winds at EMA's peak were estimated to be 40 knots using the Dvorak technique.
The last advisory issued by the CPHC was issued at 190300Z when the remains of Tropical Depression EMA were just east of 140W near 20N and heading north northeast. Coordination with the EPHC resulted in putting Tropical Depression EMA to rest.
HANA started in a similar fashion as EMA over the same time period. The forecasters at the CPHC kept watch on an area of convection to the south of the Hawaiian Islands for several days. Satellite imagery on September 15 indicated that a mass of convection had become organized during the night and the CPHC issued its first advisory on Tropical Depression 3C centered near 14.7N 158.0W at 152100Z. TD3C intensified rapidly and was upgraded to a Tropical Storm HANA at 160000Z.
HANA moved on a steady course toward the north northwest for 24 hours. The low level circulation, during the entire life cycle as a tropical storm, was obscured by high clouds and convection. All position and intensity estimates on HANA were made from satellite imagery using the Dvorak technique. Fixes during part of the 16th and 17th were suspect, because the low level circulation was not discernible. In any event, HANA remained nearly stationary for about 18 hours and then moved on a course toward the southwest while weakening to a tropical depression. The final advisory on HANA was issued at 190300Z near 13N 162W.
Beginning with the 1982 season, tropical cyclones reaching tropical storm intensity within the CPHC area of forecast responsibility between 140W and the International Dateline were given Hawaiian names. IWA was the fourth such storm named in 1982. The name IWA is the name given to the frigate bird and also takes on the meaning of the word "thief," since the frigate bird is often observed stealing fish and other food from sea birds in flight when returning from the sea to feed their young ones.
A very active trough near the equator was present during mid November to the south of the Hawaiian Islands. Westerly surface winds and widespread convection were along this trough that extended across the entire Pacific from about 140E to 140W. An organized area of cyclonic circulation could be noted near 07N 163W at 180000Z. It moved slowly west and was carried in the marine forecasts as a tropical disturbance. At 191200Z, satellite imagery indicated further development and the CPHC issued its first advisory on Tropical Storm IWA. Over the next several days, Tropical Storm IWA drifted slowly in a generally northerly direction gradually gaining strength. At 230000Z it reached hurricane intensity near 16N 164W or about 500 miles southwest of Honolulu.
Hurricane IWA, which on the previous day or two had moved north northwest between 3 and 5 knots, gradually gained forward speed on the 23rd and slowly intensified over the warm waters while turning to a more northerly and later northeasterly course.
An Air Force reconnaissance plane flew into the center of IWA at 231800Z and observed surface winds of 80 knots and a minimum sea level pressure of 968 millibars at 20.2N 162.7W. The 80 knot winds were in good agreement with the 75 knot winds carried in the CPHC advisories 6 hours earlier and based solely on satellite analyses. A subsequent fix at 232100Z near 20.7N 162.4W, or 250 miles Southwest of Honolulu, confirmed sustained winds of 80 knots. Three hours later, a fix near 21.6N 161.6W showed estimated winds down slightly at 70 knots. IWA was now moving rapidly northeast between 20 and 25 knots.
Hurricane IWA had peaked with respect to intensity, but the rapidly accelerating forward motion of the recurving cyclone made winds and swell conditions within the dangerous right semicircle extending in over the island of Kauai very severe. With its center moving northeast just north of Kauai between 22.4N 160.1W at 240300Z and 23.3N 158.5W at 240600Z, Hurricane IWA was moving at a forward speed between 25 and 30 knots. This resulted in rapidly changing conditions over the Hawaiian Islands with a quick deterioration and a subsequent very rapid improvement as the hurricane was swept out to the northeast. At 250000Z, the center was already 350 miles northeast of Honolulu near 26.5N 151.7W with winds rapidly weakening. Issuance of tropical cyclone advisories was subsequently discontinued and the remnant circulation was carried as a gale low on the marine bulletins issued by Honolulu and San Francisco.
Although property damage was severe on Kauai, most physical injuries to people were minor and only one death occurred. A seaman aboard a Navy destroyer leaving Pearl Harbor ahead of the storm was killed by heavy seas, which threw him against a stanchion. Another life was lost in the aftermath of the storm during cleanup operations. Total damage was estimated at $250 million making this the most damaging storm of record up to this time. The south shore of Kauai was particularly hard hit by wave action with very severe damage around Poipu. The Waianae coast of Oahu also had stretches of severe surf damage. In fact, all islands reported some surf damage along their southwest facing shores. Wind damage was widespread on Kauai and there were pockets on Oahu that also received heavy wind damage, such as the Wahiawa area of central Oahu and portions of the windward coast. Rainfall accompanying IWA was generally light due to the rapid movement of the storm when near the Islands. Therefore, there were no reports of flood problems.